Diabetes mellitus/Diabetes: Types, Precaution, Diagnosis, Treatment & Complications 

In today’s article lets discuss about Diabetes mellitus a chronic disease by which millions are suffering from. It is with relation to abnormally high levels of the sugar glucose in the blood.

Overview of Diabetes mellitus :

In today’s article lets discuss about Diabetes mellitus  a chronic disease by which millions are suffering from . It iswith relation to abnormally high levels of the sugar glucose in the blood. 

Among the US population in 2018 : 34.2 million people (10.5%) of all ages had diabetes . 72.96 million cases of diabetes in of India. In 2019 the global diabetes prevalence isestimated to be 9.3% (463 million people) with a risk of rising to 10.2% (578 million) by 2030.

Diabetes is caused due any one of the mechanisms,  they are :

·       Insufficient production of insulin (which is made by the pancreas lowers blood     glucose), or

·       Insufficient sensitivity of cells to the action of insulin.

Two main types of diabetes correlate with these two mechanisms and are called

1.     Type 1insulin dependent  diabetes : there is no insulin or not enough of it.

2.     Type 2 non-insulin dependent diabetes :  there is generally enough insulin but the cells upon which it should act are not normally sensitive to its action.


What are the types of Diabetes Mellitus?

The three major diabetes types are : Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

Type I diabetes ( Juvenile diabetes ) :   arises when the body fails to insulin production . People with this are insulin-dependent,which means they must take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.

Type 2 diabetes: This type affects body’s way of using insulin. Body makes insulin but the cells in the body do not respond to it as efficiently as they once did. Its the most common type of diabetes, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the reason for that is obesity.

Gestational diabetes: Occurs in women during pregnancy , when the body can become less sensitive to insulin. Does not occur to everyone and usually resolves after giving birth.

Less common types of diabetes: monogenic diabetes(inherited) and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

Symptoms of Diabetes mellitus:

       1. More glucosein blood
 2.Excessive & frequent passingof urine
 3.Feeling thirsty and hungry often
 4.Reduced healingcapacity of injury
 5.General weaknessof the body
 6.In extreme cases diabetic coma can take place makingthe patient unconscious.

Symptoms in men:

In addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have a decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction (ED), and poor muscle strength.

Symptoms in women:

Women with diabetes can have symptoms such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and dry, itchy skin.

Type 1 & 2 diabetes symptoms :

Type 1 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

extreme hunger

increased hunger

increased thirst

increased thirst

   unintentional weight loss

sores that are slow to heal

 frequent urination

increased urination

blurry vision

blurry vision



mood changes.

recurring infections

Gestational diabetes symptoms :

Most women never showany symptoms. Detected during a routine blood sugar test or oral glucose tolerance test that is usually performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of gestation. In rare cases, a woman will experience increased thirst or urination.

What are the Prevention and cure for Diabetes mellitus?

          1.Control the extra weight of the body.
  2.A controlled diet shouldbe taken.
  3.Food should not contain sugar and much carbohydrates.
  4.Injection of insulin before meals, if required (only on doctor’s prescription).

What’s Prediabetes?

People having blood sugar in the range of 100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) are referred to have  prediabetes (borderline diabetes) .Normal blood sugar level is between 70 and 99 mg/dL , while a diabetic person will have a fasting blood sugar higher than 126 mg/dL. Prediabetes level is higher than normal blood glucose levelbut not so high as to have diabetes. But the ones with prediabetes are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes even thoughthey don’t showthe symptoms of full diabetes.

Risk factors for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: 

They are related they are :

  • Obesity
  • a family history of diabetes
  • having a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level lower than 40 mg/dL or 50 mg/dL
  • history of high blood pressure
  • having gestational diabetes / giving birth to a child with a birth weight of more than 9 pounds
  • a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • being of African-American, Native American, Latin American, or Asian-Pacific Islander descent
  • being of age > 45 years
  • having a sedentary lifestyle i.e. lack of physical activity

If a doctor diagnoses that a person has prediabetes, they will suggest the individual makes healthier changes that can stop the progression to type 2 diabetes. Losing weight and having a more healthierdiet can assist in preventing the disease.

Problems related to Insulin: How does it develop?

The clear causes of type I diabetesis not known . Type 2 diabetes( insulin resistance)  has clearer causes. Insulin allows glucose in a person’s food to access the cells in the body to provide energy. Insulin resistance is a result of the following cycle:

  1. A person has genes making it unable to make enough insulin to convert how much glucose they eat.
  2. The body tries to make extra insulin to process excess blood glucose.
  3. The pancreas cannot keep up with increased need and the excess blood sugar starts to circulate in the blood, lead to damage.
  4. Over time, insulin becomes less effective at introducing glucose to cells and blood sugar levels keep on rising.

In type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance occurs slowly . So doctors suggest making lifestyle changes to slow or reverse this cycle.

Diabetes diagnosis:

All who havesymptoms of diabetes or at risk for the disease should be tested. Women are routinely tested for gestational diabetes during their second or third trimesters of pregnancy. The earlier onegetsdiagnosed with diabetes, the sooner one can start treatment. 

Blood tests to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:

  • The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test measures blood sugar after the person has fasted for 8 hours.
  • The A1C test provides a snapshot of  the person’s blood sugar levels over the last 3 months.

To diagnose gestational diabetes:

 The blood sugar levelswill be testedbetween the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy.

  • Glucose challenge test, your blood sugar is checked an hour after you drink a sugary liquid.
  • During the 3 hour glucose tolerance test, your blood sugar is checked after you fast overnight and then drink a sugary liquid.

Treatment of diabetes mellitus :

Diabetes is treated with few different medications. Some of these drugs are taken orally, while others are available as injections.

Treatment of Type 1 diabetes:

The main treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin as it replaces the hormone your body isn’t able to produce. Four types of insulin are available and are commonly used.

Types of insulin

Starts to work

Effects last

Rapid-acting insulin

within 15 minutes

3 to 4 hours

Short-acting insulin

within 30 minutes

6 to 8 hours

Intermediate-acting insulin

within 1 to 2 hours

12 to 18 hours

Long-acting insulin

few hours after injection

24 hours or longer

Treatment of Type 2 diabetes:

Diet and exercise helpssome to manage type 2 diabetes. Even after lifestyle changes lower one’s blood sugar they’ll need to take medication.

These drugs lower blood sugar in a many ways:

How to treat type 2 diabetes, Sympdisease
Treatment of type 2 Diabetes (Table Form)

The person may need to take more than one of these drugs. Some people with type 2 diabetes also take insulin.

Treatment of Gestational diabetes:

They’ll need to monitor blood sugar level several times a day during pregnancy. If it’s high then dietary changes and exercise can or cannot be enough to bring it down. About 10 to 20 percent of women with gestational diabetes may need insulin, so as to lower their blood sugar. Insulin is safe for the growing foetus .


Complications of diabetes:

 Dangerously elevated blood sugar, abnormally low blood sugar due to diabetes medications, and disease of the blood vessels which can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. Without  attentive care one candevelop a buildup of sugars in the blood, which can increase the risk of dangerous complications, including stroke and heart disease. Different kinds of diabetes can occur and managing the condition depends on the type. Being overweight or leading an inactive lifestyle is not always the cause for diabetes& in some its present from childhood. 


So lets stay vigilant of the above mentioned symptoms and try our best to find diabetes in the initial stage itself. Make sure to check if your loved ones have any of these symptoms.  On the whole leading a healthier lifestyle is a must . Stay healthier & stay safe .

Author: Hi there, my name is Subin Joshua, and I am a Medical student. I grew up in a family of teachers and know that being a social worker is my calling. My passion for helping others has been evident in my involvement in helping the poor and needy for the last three years. Through those experiences, I have learned to interact with a diverse group of people, which has increased my ability to relate to others.