All you need to know about Typhoid
|All you need to know about typhoid|
Typhoid is a bacterial infection that can lead to a high fever, diarrhea, and vomiting. It can be fatal. It is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. The infection is often passed on through contaminated food and drinking water, and it is more prevalent in places where handwashing is less frequent.
Basic Information :
Pathogen : A Bacillus rod-shaped bacterium (Salmonella typhi)
Mode of transmission : Through contaminated food and water
Incubation period : About 1-3 weeks
- Continuous fever, headache, slow pulse rate.
- Reddish rashes appear on the belly.
- In extreme cases, ulcers may rupture resulting in death of the patient.
Prevention and Cure :
- Anti-typhoid inoculation should be given.
- Avoid taking exposed food and drinks.
- Proper sanitation and cleanliness should be maintained.
- Proper disposal of excreta of the patient.
- Antibiotics should be administered.
What are the causes and risk factors?
This is caused by bacteria called Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). It’s not the same bacterium that causes the foodborne illness Salmonella.
Its main method of transmission is the oral-fecal route, generally spreading in contaminated water or food. It can also be passed through direct contact with an infected person.
In addition, there are a small number of people who recover but still carry S. typhi. These “carriers” can infect others. Some regions have a higher incidence of typhoid. These include Africa, India, South America, and Southeast Asia. Worldwide, typhoid fever affects more than 26 million people per year. The United States has about 300 cases per year.
For most healthy people, the typhoid vaccine is not necessary. But your doctor might recommend one if you’re:
- a carrier
- in close contact with a carrier
- traveling to a country where typhoid is common
- a laboratory worker who may come in contact with S. typhi
The typhoid vaccine is 50 to 80 %effective and comes in two forms:
- Inactivated typhoid vaccine. This vaccine is a one-dose injection. It’s not for children younger than two years old and it takes about two weeks to work. You can have a booster dose every two years.
- Live typhoid vaccine. This vaccine is not for children under age six. It’s an oral vaccine given in four doses, two days apart. It takes at least a week after the last dose to work. You can have a booster every five years.
Some generally asked Questions
Q1. Which organ is affected by typhoid?
The gastrointestinal tract is more severely affected including liver, spleen, and muscles. Through bloodstream, bacteria can also reach gallbladder, lungs, and kidneys.
Q2.Does typhoid affect the brain?
Symptoms for this are fever which includes headaches, stomach pain, and high fever. On rare occasions, these infections can affect the brain resulting in serious neurological symptoms such as slurred speech and lack of muscle control.
Q3. What should we not eat in typhoid?
Foods that are high in fiber should be limited on the typhoid diet to help ease digestion. This includes raw fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Spicy foods and foods that are high in fat may also be difficult to digest and should be limited on this diet.
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